2012 Directed Energy Systems Symposium Short Courses
2 April 2012 Gaithersburg, Maryland

These short courses were offered in conjunction with the Directed Energy Systems Symposium, held 2 - 5 April 2012 in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Continuing Education Unit (CEU) credits were awarded for completion of these DEPS short courses.

Morning Courses: Full Day Course: Afternoon Courses:

Course 1.  The Road to Fielding DE Systems (This course will also be webcast)

Classification: Unclassified, Public Release

Instructor: Bill Decker, Defense Acquisition University

Duration: Half-day course, starts at 0800

CEUs awarded: 0.35

Course Description: : This short course will address the necessary actions to move directed energy technology from the laboratory/R&D environment into mainstream acquisition programs. The focus is on actions that will encourage the incorporation of DE technology into our weapons systems, given the current political and fiscal environment. We will discuss how to impact the requirements process, developing a "technology pull" basis for our weapons systems. The budget process, and the process to develop realistic, affordable acquisition and life-cycle costs for our technology, is another building block for the program. Current criteria for advancement to an official "Program of Record" will be reviewed in light of current policy and budget initiatives.

Intended Audience: All who would like to see DE systems fielded (including both technical and program managers). Prerequisites – Motivated to field a DE system.

Instructor Biography: Mr. Decker’s 38 year career includes active duty, industry, university and now DAU experience. He received a BS in Engineering from Cornell University and a MS in Physics from the Naval Postgraduate School and performed additional graduate work at the University of Arizona Optical Sciences Center. Mr. Decker’s Army 20 year Army career included assignments as Test Officer for Electro-Optics Test; Assistant Professor of Physics at the US Military Academy and Research and Development Coordinator at the Army’s Night Vision and Electro-Optics Center. After retirement from the Army, he spent three years with ITT Night Vision as the Manager of Advanced Technology Programs and eleven years with Brashear, a Division of L-3 Communications where he was a program manager, product line manager and business developer, extensively involved in DE programs.

Course 2.  Laser Propagation (This course will also be webcast)

Classification: Unclassified, Public Release

    - Boris P. Venet, MZA Associates Corporation
    - Robert Praus, MZA Associates Corporation

Duration: Half-day course, starts at 0800

CEUs awarded: 0.35

Course Description: Theoretical and applied analysis of laser propagation, including propagation through random media, will be taught. The first half of the course will provide the fundamental theories of free space propagation and propagation through random media including scattering, absorption, and wave front effects. The fundamentals of the modeling of atmospheric phenomena shall also be given. The second half of the course will cover the computation of laser propagation effects using statistical and wave-optics approaches. Students will be introduced to the modeling of laser propagation using SHaRE and WaveTrain software tools. The fundamentals of atmospheric compensation will be reviewed.

Intended Audience: Students should have an undergraduate-level understanding of mathematics and physics and be familiar with scientific computing. The course will be of interest to program managers, systems engineers, and modelers of surveillance and laser systems to be employed in the open atmosphere.

Instructor Biographies: Dr. Boris Venet is a physicist with 24 years professional experience in optical physics research. He provides expertise in optical propagation theory and turbulence, numerical wave-optics simulation, statistical signal analysis, Fourier imaging principles, radiometric analysis, and synthetic-aperture imaging. He also has expertise in optical system design and assembly of bench-level optical systems and small-telescope-based optical measurement instrumentation. He served as Principal Investigator and Program Manager for MZA's HELMAS contract, a four-year effort in support of simulation, analysis, and data management related to USAF Airborne Laser optical-propagation and beam-control research. He has been the Principal Investigator for several Phase-I, II, and III SBIR contracts under DoD agency sponsorship. His most recent emphasis has been in support of maritime propagation applications including littoral, open-sea, air-sea interface, and underwater propagation.

Robert Praus is co-founder and President of MZA Associates Corporation, a company that has distinguished itself in the analysis, design, and implementation of beam control systems. Mr. Praus was stationed at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory in 1981 where he specialized data analysis and programming for the Airborne Laser Laboratory (ALL) and the development of the Wavefront Control System Simulation (WCSS). He continued his involvement in end-to-end wave optics simulation at the BDM Corporation and RDA. From 1989 to 1991, he served as software manager of the National Test Facility (NTF), now the MDA MDIOC. Since founding MZA in 1991, he has provided technical management, analysis, and simulation support to a number of atmospheric characterization and compensation experiments including HABE, ABLEX, ABLE ACE, the ABL-ACT North Oscura Peak facility, ABL, DLWS, and ELLA. He served as the principal investigator for MZA's Airborne Laser (ABL) modeling effort in support of the ABL SPO and was the primary designer and implementer of the ABL beam control system model. He presently supports the design and engineering of beam control components and subsystems for advanced imaging and tactical laser weapon systems.

Course 3.  Modeling and Simulation Verification & Validation

Classification: Unclassified, Public Release

Instructor: James Elele

Duration: Half-day course, starts at 0800

CEUs awarded: 0.35

Course Description: Coming soon

Course 4.  Joint RF Effects Model

Classification: Unclassified, Limited Distribution C (Restricted to employees of the U.S. Government or its contractors)

    -  Charles Davis, AFRL
    -  John Tatum, ARL

Duration: Half-day course, starts at 0800

CEUs awarded: 0.35

Course Description: This course has two objectives. The first objective is to provide an overview of the High Power Microwave (HPM) engagement and target effects modeling problem with an emphasis on the Joint RF Effects Model (JREM) modeling tool. The second objective is to run JREM simulations and interpret the outputs. JREM is the merging of two modeling tools, the Army Research Laboratory's (ARL) Directed Radio Frequency Energy Assessment Model (DREAM) and the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Radio-Frequency Propagation and Target Effects Code (RF-PROTEC). The merging of the two codes combines the predictive electronic effects modeling of DREAM with the empirical electronic target effects modeling of RF-PROTEC. The engagement problem is divided into the propagation of HPM pulses, an estimation of the effects on target subsystems, and the aggregation of subsystem effects to determine the effect on one or more distributed target systems. JREM can perform tradeoff studies to optimize HPM system lethality, sensitivity analyses to determine the key elements of an HPM engagement scenario, and predictions for field tests and experiments. It can also be used to provide the link between a physics level of understanding of HPM, and the target system lethality data required to determine its effectiveness in Warfighter missions. The RF-PROTEC portion of JREM calculates the fields at a point in the target through the use of ray-tracing techniques based on Geometric Optics and the Uniform Theory of Diffraction (GO/UTD). In addition, statistical and semi-empirical models can optionally be used to extend the standard GO/UTD methods to include indoor path loss models to handle scattering and shadowing caused by objects not explicitly modeled. The DREAM portion of JREM is essentially a special purpose susceptibility calculator that makes use of a RF power level to determine how it degrades the performance of an electronic system and computes the probability of failure of a system's electronics based on minimal detail about the target structure, function and composition. Course topics include:

  • Overview of RF Effects Models and Simulations
  • Overview of the DREAM Effects Code
  • Overview of the JREM Target and Effects Code
  • Introduction to Modeling and Simulating an HPM Scenario using JREM
  • Hands-on session (at least five computers with JREM will be provided)

Intended Audience: The course is intended for anyone who wants to learn the basic of modeling the HPM engagement problem. It is meant for an individual with a background in science or engineering and/or in technical program management.

Instructor Biographies: Charles E. Davis is an electronics engineer at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Kirtland AFB (Albuquerque, NM) in AFRL's Directed Energy Directorate. He has worked in the area of High Power Microwaves (HPM) for over twenty years in the areas of experimentation, testing, and primarily in the various areas of modeling and simulation. He has a Masters in Electrical Engineering from the University of New Mexico.

John T. Tatum is an electronics engineer with the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) in Adelphi, Md. He has a Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering from the University of Maryland and has done graduate work in the areas of Radar and Communications. He is a senior level engineer in the Directed Energy Division where he directs and participates in RF effects investigations on military and commercial electronic systems. Mr. Tatum is a fellow of the Directed Energy Professional Society and currently the co chair of the RF DE sub group of the Joint Technical Coordinating Group on Munitions Effectiveness. He has published several papers on RF susceptibility assessment methodology, system effects investigations and effects data bases for both DoD and IEEE conferences.

Course 5.  Understanding Laser Effects from a Systems Engineering Perspective

Classification: Secret, Limited Distribution D (Restricted to persons holding a Secret security clearance who are employees of the U.S. Department of Defense or its contractors)

    -  Javon Evanoff, Ball Aerospace
    -  Nick Morley, AFRL

Duration: Half-day course, starts at 0800

CEUs awarded: 0.35

Course Description: Developing requirements or understanding the performance of a High Energy Laser (HEL) system requires knowledge of laser effects on the targets of interest. This course will explain the important parameter relationships between laser beams and target effects or reoccurring interest to HEL system designers and provide an overview of laser-effects research findings over the past 30 years. Specific examples from experimental test programs of laser effects on materials and targets will be presented, along with an introduction to countermeasures and their effectiveness. Topics to be covered include:

  • Motivation - the importance of quantifying laser effects
  • History of Laser-Effects Research - a review of the major laser-effects research activities over the past 30 years
  • Understanding lethality requirements - relating laser beam parameters to desired target effects and mission impact
  • A review of common laser - material interactions and response data
  • A review of laser - target interactions and response
  • Countermeasures - impact of common countermeasures and their effectiveness

Intended Audience: This course will benefit modeling and simulation analysts or system engineers responsible for evaluating or designing HEL systems. Managers seeking to better understand how to balance their portfolio between hardware development and laser-effects studies will also benefit through an increased understanding of how laser-effect phenomenology effects hardware development decisions.

Instructor Biography: Mr. Evanoff is a program manager with over 20 years experience in laser weapon-effects research. His knowledge covers numerous analytical and experimental aspects of vulnerability, survivability and lethality research. He has made significant contributions to numerous HEL programs including the Airborne Laser, HEL Joint Technology Office Lethality Technical Area Working Group, Multifunction Electro-Optics for Defense of US Aircraft, Space-Based Laser, Ground-Based Laser Technology and Lethality & Target Hardening programs.

Dr. Nicholas Morley received B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in Nuclear Engineering from the University of New Mexico in 1988, 1991, and 1993, respectively. He has been an employee of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Directed Energy Directorate located at Kirtland AFB, NM, from 1994 to the present. He is currently the Branch Chief for the Laser Effects Research Branch where his responsibilities include directing research efforts in the following areas: general target effects; target construction, heat transfer and fluid dynamics for lasers, aircraft cruise missiles, surface-to-air missiles, and ICBMs; laser effects on fuels and explosives; degradation of optical components; and temperature-dependent optical scattering. Dr. Morley is a senior member of the AIAA and a member of DEPS. His technical areas of interest include the following: high energy laser interaction with materials; laser ablation; conductive, convective, radiative, and two-phase heat transfer; laser coupling; and optical scattering; dynamic energy conversion systems.

Course 6.  An Intuitive Introduction to the Physics of Directed Energy

Classification: Unclassified, Limited Distribution C (Restricted to employees of the U.S. Government or its contractors)

    -  Dave Kiel, Innolog
    -  Frank Peterkin, NSWCDD

Duration: Full-day course, starts at 0800

CEUs awarded: 0.7

Course Description: High Power Lasers (HEL) and High Power Microwaves (HPM) weapons show promise to greatly improve the US military's ability to fight, offering speed of light engagement, deep magazines, and ability to "dial-an-effect". This one day short course will cover the language used and basic physics of the technology of DE weapons by approaching the topics with intuitive explanations and minimal use of complex mathematics. Topics to be covered include:

  • The basic nature of light and RF radio waves
  • HEL lethality analysis
  • HEL Propagation in a real atmosphere and its effect on weaponization
  • Lasers, how they work, and laser weaponization issues
  • A HEL example to tie it all together
  • HPM Effects
  • HPM propagation
  • HPM sources
  • HPM weapon program examples to tie the concepts together

Intended Audience: The course is designed for people new to the field who need to quickly develop an understanding of the key topics in order to be successful technical managers of DE projects. It should help them speak the language, enable them to ask the hard questions, and accurately translate expectations between the non-technical warfighter, the acquisition community, and the scientists and engineers doing the work. However, anyone who is new to the field and just wants an insightful look at the technology of DE weapons will also benefit. Those with a technical background will gain the most from the course content, but since many of the principles are explained with basic concepts, non-technical majors should achieve significant insight as well.

Instructor Biographies: David Kiel entered the Navy in 1982 and served on various ships as a Surface Warfare Officer. After his initial sea tours, he attended the Naval Post Graduate School and received his M.S. in Physics specializing in Optics and Laser Physics. After graduation he transferred out of the Surface Warfare community and became an Engineering Duty Officer specializing in weapons development and acquisition. Subsequently he served at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren Division doing research in High Power Microwaves, managed Electronic Warfare development programs in PEO IWS, and is currently the Program Manager for the Surface Navy Directed Energy and Electric Weapons program office where he led the efforts of the Surface Navy to develop and possibly field a High Energy Laser and Rail Gun in the Navy. He currently works for Innolog, Inc.

Dr. Frank E. Peterkin received a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln with support from a National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship. He subsequently held a post-doctoral position at Old Dominion University from 1992-1995. His R&D interests encompassed a number of topics, including pulsed power, thermal and non-thermal plasma generation, Marx generators, high-voltage power supplies, pulsed bioelectrics, and micro-discharges. Since 1995 he has been with the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Dahlgren VA (NSWCDD), working primarily on Directed Energy projects and programs. In 2009 he was named the Director of the NSWCDD Directed Energy Warfare Office. In that capacity he has oversight of numerous projects advancing the development of High Power Microwave, Counter-IED, and High Energy Laser technologies for Naval weapon systems and applications. Dr. Peterkin has published more than 50 papers in refereed journals and conference proceedings, holds five patents, and actively serves on the organizing committees of multiple technical conferences.

Course 7.  Predictive Avoidance

Classification: Unclassified, Limited Distribution C (Restricted to employees of the U.S. Government or its contractors)

    -  LeAnn Brasure, Schafer
    -  Heather Witts, JFCC SPACE/J95

Duration: Half-day course, starts at 1300

CEUs awarded: 0.35

Course Description: This course is intended to teach the "Why, Who, What, How and What's New" of Predictive Avoidance (PA) – the process by which space assets are protected from accidental illumination by lasers. Airspace Deconfliction (AD) – protecting air assets - will also be mentioned but not in any significant detail. PA and AD are critical pieces of the testing process for DoD and NSA laser systems and a knowledgeable and proactive approach by the testing organization can maximize test windows and minimize frustration.

The goal of this course is to familiarize the student with the reasons behind PA, the process for working with the Laser Clearing House (LCH) as well as tools and points of contact available to hopefully simplify and clarify the process. In addition the course will cover efforts in the community to standardize the process and make the safety requirements more in line with current probabilistic risk assessment methodology.

Topics to be covered include:

  • Intro (who, what, where, when, how)
  • Policy – Defining the environment – present and future
  • Implementation – How do we keep assets safe
  • Analysis – How do we identify risks – to include tools available

Intended Audience: Anyone who is currently involved or anticipates involvement in laser testing will benefit from this course. Test planners and managers as well as those technically involved with the testing are welcome.

Instructor Biographies: LeAnn Brasure works for Schafer Corporation supporting the HEL JTO as part of their technical team. She graduated from the University of Michigan with a BS in Physics. After completing four years of ROTC she was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Air Force. She obtained a Masters Degree in nuclear physics through the Air Force Institute of Technology and retired from the Air Force after 24 years of active duty service. During her active duty time she had assignments including WSMC (Vandenberg AFB), AFTAC (Patrick AFB) as well as a physics instructor at the Air Force Academy. She began to focus on solid state lasers during her assignment as an AFRL Laboratory Representative at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Her last assignment was with AFRL at Kirtland AFB as the Solid State Laser Branch Chief. Her role as a part of the HEL JTO team is to monitor current and help define new technology development programs such as the JTO's Predictive Avoidance and Airspace Deconfliction effort.

Heather (Lehmann) Witts is the Deputy Chief of the DE Branch of the JFCC SPACE/J95 Unified Space Vault. In that role she is primarily responsible for carrying out the Laser Clearinghouse mission. She was accepted into the Nuclear Propulsion Officer Candidate (NuPOC) Program in 2001 and graduated from Luther College with a BA in Math and Physics in May 2003. She received her commission in December 2003, completed sea tours on USS IWO JIMA and USS DWIGHT D EISENHOWER, and passed the nuclear engineers exam. In August 2008, then LT Lehmann reported to JFCC SPACE/J95 at Vandenberg AFB as Deputy Chief of the Directed Energy Branch where she spent most of her time dedicated to carrying out the LCH mission. In late 2010 she transitioned out of the active force, into the Navy Reserves, and became an AF civilian - remaining in a similar position at JFCC SPACE. She obtained a Masters Degree in Engineering Management and was married in 2011. Ms Witts is presently the primary point of contact for the LCH mission.

Course 8.  HPM Effects and Data Collection

Classification: Unclassified, Limited Distribution C (Restricted to employees of the U.S. Government or its contractors)

    -  Timothy Clarke, AFRL/RDHE
    -  Hugh Pohle, AFRL/RDHE
    -  David Brumit, AFRL/RDHE

Duration: Half-day course, starts at 1300

CEUs awarded: 0.35

Course Description: This course will introduce the student to the fundamental ideas of collecting and analyzing HPM field and effects data. This will include a brief description of the statistical ideas behind the Bayesian analysis of effects data to build probability of effect curves, as well as an introduction to using the tool ANODE to perform the analysis. It will also include an overview of how to plan an HPM effects test, what instrumentation to use and what data to collect. It will also provide some useful practical rules on how to conduct a successful test, as well as what problems to expect and how to mitigate them. Course will include presentations and diagnostic equipment demonstration.
Topics include:

  • Components of air defense systems
  • Analyzing effects data to build Probability of Effect curves
  • ANODE (Java tool to analyze effects data)
  • Field test planning
  • Useful rules of thumb for field testing
  • Diagnosing effects on electronic assets
  • What data to collect and what sensors to use
  • Problems that can arise and how to identify them

Intended Audience:The course is intended for anyone involved with HPM effects data, whether from the analysis or from the field data collection perspective. Even though it does not require a bachelor's degree in science or engineering, it is meant for individual with some back ground in science or engineering and/or in technical program management.

Instructor Biographies:Dr. Timothy Clarke is the Technical Advisor for the Effects & Modeling Branch, High Power Microwave Division at the Air Force Research Laboratory's Directed Energy Directorate, where he works in the area of RF effects as well as various aspects of modeling and simulation. He has worked in this field since 2001, and has given several previous DEPS HPM short courses. He has a Bachelor of Arts in Mathematics and a PhD in Applied Mathematics, both from Cambridge University.

Mr. Hugh Pohle has a BSEE and MSEE specializing in Microwave Engineering. He has been with the AFRL for the past 30 years working in the area of Electromagnetic Pulse and high power microwave effects and measurements. He has conducted numerous large scale field tests of HPM systems to measure their power and effectiveness.

Mr. David Brumit is an RF engineer for the Effects & Modeling Branch, High Power Microwave Division at the Air Force Research Laboratory's Directed Energy Directorate since 2004. His experience includes RF effects experimentation, mitigation, and system hardening. He has a Bachelor and Master of Sciences in Electrical Engineering from New Mexico State University.

Course 9.  High Energy Laser Warfighter Familiarization

Classification: Secret (Restricted to persons holding a Secret security clearance)

    -  Robert M. Newton, USAF, Retired
    -  Dan A. Isbell, USAF, Retired
    -  Ross Dudley, USAF, Retired, AEgis Technologies Group

Duration: Half-day course, starts at 1300

CEUs awarded: 0.35

Course Description: Throughout history, warfare has been marked by both evolutionary and revolutionary leaps in capabilities. Sometimes, these leaps are the result in changes in tactics, techniques, and procedures. At other times, it is a change in technology that enables these leaps through a combination of matching new tactics, techniques, and procedures to a new technological invention. On occasion, there are technological breakthroughs so significant that they have the power to change the very nature of warfare and provide not just an evolution in capabilities but a true revolution in new capabilities. Perhaps nowhere is this more apparent than in the field of directed energy.

This course will provide an up-to-date look at the state of our ability to produce and wield laser weapon systems, as well as employment considerations to fully exploit their potential contribution to the fight, including:

  • Agile, speed-of-light engagement
  • Ultra-precision targeting and effects
    • Minimized collateral effects (Urban environments, CAS)
    • Engage previously "no strike" targets
  • Scalable effects (non-lethal through lethal)
    • Sensing, ISR, tagging, psyops, mission kill, total kill
  • Potentially covert (silent, non-visible), clandestine
  • No unexploded ordnance left on battlefield
  • Superb combat ID, immediate BDA
  • Deep magazine, with recharge capability
  • Detect, track, kill optical systems
  • Self defense (CRAM, SAMs, A-A missiles)
  • Multiple target engagements, rapid retargeting
While many of these effects can be achieved separately by conventional means, most cannot be achieved at a distance, at the speed of light, or via a single, integrated system. Advances in high energy laser technologies provide the opportunity to achieve a truly revolutionary, integrated, "dial-a-yield" weapon system capability that can achieve these desired effects both at a distance, and at the speed of light. If we can achieve a mutual understanding of not only the underlying technologies, but also the system of systems aspect of laser weapon systems, we can assist in evolving laser weapon systems from science fiction into science fact while providing a quantum leap of warfighting capability advantages. It is the goal of this High Energy Laser Warfighter Familiarization short course to help catalyze that process of gaining a mutual understanding of the current art of the possible as a starting point to shaping achievable requirements for the revolutionary laser weapon systems of the future.

Intended Audience:All disciplines, including warfighters, technologists, contractors, acquisition corps, and force planners could benefit from this capability/mission perspective of high energy laser weapon systems.

Instructor Biographies: Robert Newton brings a broad range of expertise and experience to the defense and technology sectors with his over 3 years of corporate performance and 26 years of service in the US Air Force with flight experience in over 50 types of aircraft. His perspective comes from a solid technical education that includes a Bachelor of Science degree from The Ohio State University and a Master’s degree from Georgia Institute of Technology in Aerospace Engineering. During his Air Force career he also completed flight school, USAF Test Pilot School, acquisition program management school and the professional military service schools. Bob spent most of his military flying career in various models of the F-16, and also has F-22 program management experience and command experience, He has commanded flying units and is a veteran of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom, and was Vice Commander of the Air National Guard/Air Force Reserve Command Test Center (AATC).

Dan Isbell brings a broad range of expertise and experience to the defense and technology industry with his 26 years of service in the US Air Force with flight experience in over 60 types of aircraft. His insight comes from an educational background that includes a Master’s degree in National Resource Strategy from the National Defense University, a Master’s degree in Human Resource Management from Troy State University and a Bachelor of Science degree in Aerospace Engineering from Georgia Institute of Technology. During his Air Force career he also completed flight school, USAF Test Pilot School, Senior Acquisition Manager’s course, Industrial College of the Armed Forces and the professional military service schools. Dan spent most of his military career in various models of the F-111 and F-16, and also has both F-16 and F-22 program management experience and command experience, His was also Chief of the Weapon Systems Sector of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), which included both kinetic energy and directed energy weapons technologies.

Ross Dudley brings a diverse background in modeling, simulation, and test experience with three years of corporate performance and 20 years of service in the US Air Force. His education includes Bachelor of Science in Human Factors Engineering from USAFA and an MA in Computer Resource Management from Webster University. Ross has military experience that includes human factors evaluations of near-production cockpit designs of the F-16, range testing of the B-2 and CV-22 for survivability and countermeasure assessment, and Air Operations Center development, operational testing, and support of exercises, such as Blue Flag, Ulchi Focus Lens, and Union Flash.

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Last updated: 14 April 2012