Journal of Directed Energy (Limited Edition)
Volume 2 Spring 2011

The papers listed below constitute Volume 2 of the Journal of Directed Energy, Limited Edition.
Persons with the necessary credentials can obtain copies of the individual papers by contacting

Thermal Injury in Human Subjects due to 94 GHz Radio Frequency Radiation Exposures (No.1)
The objective of this study is to compare the exposure data for millimeter wave (MMW) radiation induced thermal injury in humans at two radio frequency power densities to previously obtained dose-response exposure data in porcine populations.7 Where possible, this study aims to extrapolate the probable human skin thermal response to MMW exposures from the porcine database. Due to the inherent difficulties in acquiring human subjects and exposing them to damaging levels of MMWs, the conclusions presented will be based upon the results of a small sample population (N=6). Therefore, these results can serve as a guide to the acceptable safety margins for the employment of MMW devices, but are not a definitive study.
Thermal Injury in Large Animals Due to 94 GHz Radio Frequency Radiation Exposures (No.2)
The objective of this study is to extrapolate the dose-response relationship for millimeter wavelength radiation induced thermal injury from previously obtained rodent data to a larger animal model. From our understanding of the exposure conditions that cause damage in rats, we chose exposure conditions that would likely cause more than just superficial burn damage in pig skin. However, due to structural differences (relative thickness of tissues and density of hair follicles) between rat and pig skin, direct correlations of burn data are not likely to have statistical significance. Twelve Yucatan mini-pigs were used in this study to develop probability of developing first- and second-degree burns versus exposure duration at 3 power density settings and versus the rise in the mean skin temperature over the exposed area. Additionally, the study examined the effects of repeated exposures to an area, and the time required between exposures to return to pre-exposure temperatures. The results of the study indicate that the damage to the skin from the RF exposures is a purely thermal effect.
Behavioral Effects of Exposure to Active Denial System on Operators of Motor Vehicles (No.3)
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of the Active Denial System (ADS) on persons in vehicles, and to assess the potential usefulness of ADS in a vehicle-stopping scenario. In Experiment 1, we quantitatively measured the time to reaction following ADS exposure onset in a static scenario. For Experiment 2, we quantitatively measured the distance at which the vehicle was stopped or steered away from a goal area following ADS exposure onset in a moving vehicle scenario. Additionally, we quantitatively measured the driver's reaction to the ADS stimulus. Overall, ADS was found to be effective in some scenarios where an adequate dose could be delivered (i.e., head on, lower vehicle speeds), and lower alternating windshields).

Journal of Directed Energy, Limited Edition, Volume 2

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