Journal of Directed Energy (Limited Edition)
The papers listed below constitute Volume 1 of the Journal of Directed Energy, Limited Edition.
Persons with the necessary credentials can obtain copies of the individual papers by contacting
94-GHz Energy Density for Irreversible Eye Damage in New Zealand White Rabbit Cornea (Oryctolagus Cuniculus) (No.1)
The purpose of the study reported here was to correlate corneal damage in the rabbit eye with
intensity of 94-GHz irradiation. In addition, this study was designed to document the levels of
94-GHz MMWs needed to produce damage to the surface of the cornea and underlying stroma which,
if allowed to heal, would result in significant loss of optical clarity. Damage of the cornea in
anesthetized rabbits was associated with significant corneal heating greater than 65? C.
Refractive Eye Surgery: Interaction with 94-GHz Millimeter Waves in New Zealand White Rabbit Cornea (No.2)
The purpose of the study reported here was to correlate corneal damage in the post-LASIK rabbit eye
with intensity of 94-GHz irradiation with similar exposures without LASIK. The threshold differences
between the two studies are small, but could possibly be significant. Thus, the Null hypothesis that
a healed LASIK flap does not alter the corneal damage threshold to MMW exposure in rabbits cannot be
Rhesus Monkey Adversion Thresholds to 94-GHz Facial Exposure (No.3)
Millimeter wave (MMW) source technology has advanced significantly allowing the use of 94 GHz MMWs
as a non-lethal weapon. The Air Force Research Laboratory has developed such a non-lethal weapon
known as the Active Denial System (ADS). The purpose of this study was to determine the threshold
for behavioral aversion to 94 GHz MMW exposure in rhesus monkeys. Aversion was defined simply as
an eye blink, head turn, or raising the hand to block the 94 GHz MMW beam. The energy density
thresholds that produced these behavioral responses on 50% of the exposures and the maximum facial
(and ocular) temperature changes were determined. Eye blink was the first behavioral response
to the MMW exposures and occurred at the lowest energy density. Head turn or hand raising required
higher energy densities than that required to produce eye blinks.
Thermal Interaction of Contact Lens Eyewear and 94-GHz Ocular Exposures (No.4)
The objective of this study was to evaluate effect on eye heating of contact lens eyewear exposed to a
94 GHz MMW beam. This study was designed to investigate the thermal relationships between contact
lens eyewear and 94 GHz exposures. Significant differences between contacts and no contacts were not
observed at low exposure levels for either porcine eyes or rhesus monkeys. At high exposure levels
the swine eye data did show significant differences in heating for contacts on the cornea compared
to no contacts. Nevertheless, the results have shown that, under the conditions studied, the wearing
of contact lenses during 94 GHz exposure does not pose a greater risk than not wearing contacts.
In real life exposures it is expected that alert subjects would blink, close their eyes, turn their
heads, and flee the MMW beam long before tissue damage could occur from heating whether contacts
were worn or not.
Journal of Directed Energy, Limited Edition, Volume 1